Testosterone functions in men
Testosterone is the main male sex hormone that is produced by the Leydig cells of the testicles in men, the adrenal cortex in both sexes, and the ovaries in women. The hormone is a product of the intermediate metabolism of cholesterol. In boys, the hormone is responsible for androgenization, in men and women it is necessary for the formation of bone and muscle tissue, the normal functioning of the nervous system, in women, it is also involved in the synthesis of estradiol.
The main amount of testosterone in men is produced in the sex glands- testicles. A small part of this androgen is formed in the adrenal glands. Its production is controlled by the pituitary gland, hypothalamus and brain. The newly synthesized hormone enters the bloodstream, where it combines with transport proteins-sex-binding globulin and albumin. About 2% of testosterone in the blood is in a free state. It is this fraction that can have a biological effect.
Testosterone contributes to the retention of calcium in bone tissue, in men, under its influence, a specific structure of bones is formed, especially the pelvis, which increases its supporting function. In the case of hormone deficiency in young men, the skeleton develops according to the female type.
Testosterone takes part in the development of male genitalia and secondary male sexual characteristics, regulates sexual behavior and the development of sperm, the formation of ejaculate, causes hair growth on the face, chest, pubis (less often on the back), reduces the growth of hair on the head (especially on the top), affects the mucous membrane of the larynx, which leads to coarsening of the voice.
The male hormone plays a role in regulating phosphorus and nitrogen metabolism in the body, and in women, it is responsible for the regression of the follicle in the ovary.
Increased production of the hormone by the adrenal glands causes a violation of its synthesis in the ovaries and leads to virilization in women. The anabolic properties of the hormone are mainly manifested by stimulating protein synthesis in tissues (mainly in muscle tissue), which contributes to an increase in muscle mass. For this purpose, testosterone preparations are used by athletes. However, their continued use leads to a decrease in the production of this hormone by the body and requires the use of drugs to restore the secretion of its own hormone.
Testosterone is a marker of the androgen status of the body
In adult men, under the influence of testosterone, mood and motivation increase, libido increases, and a special type of thinking is formed. The hormone has a beneficial effect on fat metabolism, promotes protein formation, and improves the sensitivity of cells to insulin.